Baradeo is the Supreme Being, creator of the universe and giver of life and death, but he is rather remote. The 2011 Census of India recorded about 2.98 million Gondi speakers, concentrated in southeastern Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra, southern Chhattisgarh and northern Telangana. The language offers a cultural Education and literacy levels among the Gonds vary but are generally low. They are usually classified as Proto-Australoids by race. Cockfighting is a favorite pastime. Interknowledge Corporation. ." The designation "Naga" is applied to the numerous Indo-Mongoloid tribes living in the hill country at the…, Chakmas Each consists of homesteads that house extended families. Women also like to wear colored glass bangles and marriage necklaces made of small black beads. The shadow must be prevented from returning to its home, or it will harm the surviving relatives. The person being possessed by the spirit ceases to have any responsibility for their actions. The council consists of the headman, priest, village watchman, and four or five elders. Among many South Asian societies, women in this condition are regarded as ritually polluted and are segregated from the rest of the family. The region is drained by the head-waters of many of India's major rivers (such as the Narmada, Tapti, Son, Mahanadi, and Godavari). Children are generally welcome and treated with affection. In doing so, they are perpetuating a custom initiated by the legendary heroes of the Gond epics. Many of these subsections have assumed different tribal names so that their identity with the Gond tribe is not always clear. The staples of the Gond diet are two millets known as kodo and kutki. The Gond and Bhumia of Eastern Mandla. This is a long piece of white cotton cloth that is wrapped around the body, with its end drawn between the legs and tucked into the waistband at the back. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Males undergo a ritual shaving of the beard, mustache, and eyebrows as a sign of adulthood. This money is considered as the wealth of the women for her prestige in society. Among the numerous myths of the Gonds, perhaps the most important is the great epic that celebrates the origins and exploits of the culture hero Pahandi Kapar Lingal. [12] The Maratha power swept into Gondwana in the 1740s. Women and girls wear the cotton sari. Other rituals also involve offerings of fruits, coconuts, flowers, colored powder, and strings. It is unknown when and by which route they arrived in this part of India. The change to adulthood is gradual; there is no initiation ceremony. A Gond wedding is accompanied by many significant ceremonies, although, in general, rites conform to the marriage customs of the locality. Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life. RELATED ARTICLES: Vol. London: Oxford University Press. Mariai- the Goddess of plague and other diseases, and Bhimsen - … Sharma, Anima. This makes for a rich oral tradition. Similarly, divorce is permissible among the Gonds and is relatively easily obtained, but it must be obtained from the panchayat. In the Gond belief system, besides this high god there also exist a great number of male and female deities and spirits that personify various natural features. When released from captivity, they came out of the cave in four groups, thus laying the foundations of the basic fourfold division of Gond society. Gondwana, their traditional homeland, lies in the eastern part of the state of Madhya Pradesh and western Chhattisgarh, though large Gond populations are also found in Maharashtra and Orissa States. Gonds have a rich arts tradition that includes pottery, basket making, body tattooing, and floor painting. Magicians believe that through magic formulas they can control the actions of the deity or spirit who is the cause of a particular affliction. Although the extended family is traditional among the Gonds, the nuclear family is becoming more common. To make these Ladoos, we use Acacia Gum that is made using dried sap of babul tree. Polygamy is of three types such as polygamy, polyandry and endogamy or group marriage. Many Gonds live around the Satpura Hills, Maikala Range and Son-Deogarh uplands, and on the Bastar plateau. In the Gond belief system, besides this high god there also exist a great number of male and female deities and spirits that personify various natural features. . The status of women is markedly better among Gonds than in Hindu caste society. Gonds cremate or bury their dead, depending on status and the circumstance of death. Most describe themselves as Gonds … But it is very important for unmarried women and widows. Men typically wore a small loincloth, but many have now adopted the dhoti. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. Socialization. RELIGION: Hinduism The kitchen contains an assortment of cooking utensils, brass and earthenware pots, and baskets for storage. [23], Like village deity worship in South India, Gonds believe their small deities have the capability of possession. The meaning of the latter names is uncertain. These are either boiled to a broth or cooked to a dry cereal. By the 1991 census, this had increased to 9.3 million[8][page needed] and by the 2001 census the figure was nearly 11 million. Some Gond groups have totally abandoned Gondi and speak the language or dialect common in their locality. Groups that have been influenced by northern peoples such as the Marathas, however, follow northern customs in determining marriage partners. They overthrew Gond rajas (princes) and seized most of their territory. They have composed a great epic celebrating the origins and exploits of a Culture hero named Lingo. 1969. Rice is a luxury item that Gonds enjoy during feasts and festivals. The main part of the wedding occurs when the bride and groom walk seven times around a wedding post. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Dolcini, Donatella. Today they are mainly plough-cultivators whose agriculture differs little from other farming castes in their region. Fürer-Haimendorf, Christoph von, and Elizabeth von Fürer-Haimendorf. Daughters inherit next to nothing from their fathers. ." He is a personal god—eternal, just, merciful, maker of the fertile earth and of man—though the universe is conceived as coexisting with him. Cock-fighting is a favorite pastime of some Gond groups. [b][25][26], The Gonds venerate plants and animals, especially the Saja tree. Bombay: New Literature Publishing Co. Fürer-Haimendorf, Christoph von (1948). Pandian, Jacob. Like many tribes in the area, Gonds believe in the evil eye, black magic, and witchcraft. A few large Gond kingdoms were beginning to dominate the smaller Gond … [a], The Gondi language is spoken by almost 30 lakh Gonds: mainly in the southern area of their range. In the northern regions the Gonds often speak the local language, a dialect of Hindi or Marathi. But the highest rank is given to the descendants of the Gond rajas and their retainers, the Raj-Gonds and Katholias. Many of the songs that accompany dances tend to be of a suggestive nature. There is little to mark the passage from childhood to maturity. Those who offend against the rule of clan exogamy incur supernatural sanctions. The father of a groom pays a bride price. Originally Gond boys and girls married on reaching physical maturity. The Gond Indian tribes worship Janani or the mother of creator. Jharkhand, created in 2000 from the southern areas of Bihar largely to fulfill the aspirations of its tribal populations (c. 89% of the total state's population), also contains a considerable number of Gonds among its estimated 40 million people. They are inventive in composing new songs, folktales, legends, and myths and in retelling them dramatically. Gonds who are too poor to pay the bride-price and the wedding expenses contract a Service marriage. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Despite their numbers, the Gonds are an assemblage of diverse tribal groups. There is no comparable rite for girls, but a girl is considered full-grown at her first menstruation. Not all Gond ritual requires animal sacrifice; offerings sometimes include fruits, coconuts, flowers, colored powder, and strings. [17] At present, the language is only spoken by one fifth of Gonds and is dying out even in its traditional linguistic range. Generally, Gond women are valued mostly for their productive and reproductive functions. The tree is called Vellai Nakai | Vetkali in Tamil, Malakanniram | Vellanava in Malayalam, Shirimanu | Chiru Manu in Telugu, Dhau in Hindi, Daura | Dinkachee in Marathi, Dhava in Sanskrit and Bejalu | Dinduga … Gonds must abstain from the flesh of animals that are their clan totems. Such marriages must later be legalized by the relatives and village councils of the partners. The summer brings the monsoon rains, with precipitation amounts varying from 120 cm (47 in) to over 160 cm (63 in) in the more southeasterly locations. House, 1988. Within this area, there are numerous tribal communities who are designated as Gonds. Some festivals, such as the feasts of village or clan deities, are specifically Gond celebrations. Tex. Gonds live in villages scattered throughout central India. These ancestor spirits watch over the moral behavior of the living Gond and punish offenders of tribal law. However, most Gonds have been forced to abandon shifting cultivation by the government because it is harmful to the forest, and some Gond sections had already voluntarily changed over to plow cultivation and even to terrace cultivation. The goddess Parvati rescued them, but her consort Sri Shambhu Mahadeo (Shiva) imprisoned them in a primeval cave. Oosterhout: Anthropological Publications. Dasahara is an important Gond holiday. While a male can never change his clan, a woman on marriage is taken into the clan of her husband. The term Gond refers to tribal peoples who live all over India's Deccan Peninsula. They are listed as a Scheduled Tribe for the purpose of India's system of positive discrimination. Women wear a cotton sari (a length of fabric wrapped around the waist, with one end thrown over the right shoulder) and choli (tight-fitting, cropped blouse). Families with no sons prefer such a marriage arrangement. Little is known about the origins of the Gonds. Family ceremonies and sacrifices are carried out by the head of the household. The first historical references from the Gonds comes from Muslim writers in the 14th century. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gond, RELIGION: Cult of the Persa Pen (clan deities); ancestor spirit worship. They believe the gods would punish such a sin with a skin disease, worms in a wound, or leprosy. [24], Their typical reaction to death has been described as one of anger, because Gonds believe death is caused magically, by demons. Services of magicians and shamans ( healers ) can provide this advice ' cause... Times, dances retell events from Gond mythology a luxury item that Gonds enjoy feasts. Entire state Valley and the displeasure of the field, and high levels of literacy further reduce economic opportunity Marathas... A baby boy, while girls seem to prefer male company, while the village or even.... 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