Coffea arabica, commonly called Arabian coffee, is an upright tropical evergreen shrub or small tree that grows to 10-15’ tall. The plants are vulnerable to damage in such poor growing conditions as cold or low pH soil, and they are also more vulnerable to pests than the C. robusta plant. There is still debate over whether it was first cultivated in East Africa or on the Arabian peninsula. Its origins date back to about 1,000 BC in the highlands of the Kingdom of Kefa, which is present-day Ethiopia. Coffee (Coffea arabica) is regarded as an environmental weed in south-eastern Queensland and northern Queensland. Fermented coffee (green) seeds without their hulls. : Arabica refers to Coffea Arabica, the taxonomic species name of the genus responsible More and other types, coffee genetic diversity and such. The beans are flatter and more elongated than Robusta and lower in caffeine. Unroasted ("green") coffee (Coffea arabica) seeds from Brazil. It is now commercially grown in subtropical and tropical areas throughout the world. Well-known Italian coffee grower Ernesto Illy wrote in the June 2002 issue of Scientific American: Arabica takes about seven years to mature fully. Arabica is the most flavoursome coffee variety and is used for no less than three-quarters of total global coffee production. Technically, it is described as an allotetraploid genome, the result of a hybridization between two diploid species, Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides, which doubled arabica's chromosome number to 44. Water thoroughly once the top half-inch of soil feels dry. [1], C. arabica takes approximately seven years to mature fully, and it does best with 1.0–1.5 meters (about 40–59 inches) of rain, evenly distributed throughout the year. Coffea arabica is a polyploid species, carrying four copies of the eleven chromosomes typical of the genus Coffea, totaling 44 (2n = 4x = 44). After pruning, berries begin to appear. History of the Bean Its origins date back to about 1,000 BC in the highlands of the Kingdom of Kefa, which is present-day Ethiopia. Yes, we have been blessed with Arabica beans grown and distributed from a multitude of countries which first originated from Ethiopia. Since 1718, the coffee was known in America, starting in a Dutch colony called Surinam and followed by some crops in French Guyana. Coffea arabica is the only polyploid species of the genus Coffea, as it carries 4 copies of the 11 chromosomes (44 total) instead of the 2 copies of diploid species. The meaning of arabica coffee dates back to the 7th century, getting it’s name from present day Yemen which at the time was lower Arabia thus claiming the name “ Arabica “. The flowers only last a few days, leaving behind only the thick, dark-green leaves. Conversely, this also means the entire genetic diversity of Arabica has been skewed by the actions of a few fearless Dutchmen. Coffee is an understory shrub or small tree native to tropical Africa. C. arabica is native to the highlands of southwestern Ethiopia, whereas C. canephora is native to the lowland forests from Liberia east and south to Kenya and the Congo basin. Systematics – From the systematic point of view it belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, Kingdom Plantae, Magnoliophyta Division, Magnoliopsida Class, Rubiales Order, Rubiaceae Family and therefore to the Coffea Genus and to the C. arabica Species. Two to four years after planting, C. arabica produces small, white, highly fragrant flowers. The Arab innovation in Yemen of making a brew from roasted beans, spread first among the Egyptians and Turks, and later on found its way around the world. Arabica is considered the merlot of coffee, it has a mild taste, and to coffee drinkers, it can be described to have a sweetness, that is light and airy, like the mountains it comes from. The berries are oblong and about 1 cm long. The Typica group, like all Arabica coffee, is supposed to have originated in southwestern Ethiopia. C. arabica is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) originating from a hybridization event of the two diploid species C. canephora and C. eugenioides (2n = 2x = … Indonesian coffees, such as Sumatran and Java, are known for heavy body and low acidity. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "A comparison of coffee floral traits under two different agricultural practices", "Udawattakele: 'A Sanctuary Destroyed From Within, "The impact of climate change on indigenous arabica coffee (Coffea arabica): Predicting future trends and identifying priorities", Understanding the difference between Arabica and Robusta, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coffea_arabica&oldid=995355449, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 16:16. Arabica coffee grows best at high altitudes, has a much more refined flavor than other species, and contains about 1% caffeine by weight. Linnaeus placed it in its own genus Coffea in 1737. In reinvesting our efforts back to the people who are responsible for cultivating the coffea plant, we are able to bear the fruits of coffee beans for all to enjoy. Coffea Arabica is descended from the original coffee trees discovered in Ethiopia. The plant can tolerate low temperatures, but not frost. the seeds of this tree. These results clearly suggest that C. arabica is an amphidiploid formed by hybridisation between C. eugenioides and C. canephora, or ecotypes related to these diploid species. Distribution Despite its name, C. arabica originated in Ethiopia, where it grows at elevations between 1,375 to 1,830 m. It is believed to have been introduced into Arabia prior to the 15th century. History, New York University robusta, the main variety of C. canephora beans make the... Taken to Yemen of beans make up the 30 % difference of global coffee production 1699... Produce a fine, mild, aromatic coffee and represent approximately 70 % of global.. 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